Commands and Shortcut Keystrokes

This is a little place for me to collate useful keystrokes and commands that I tend to forget, and so need written down.



Windows XP

WinKey = ÿ aka the Windows key (alas Unicode has no character for this image - instead it's in the WingDings font as character 255 so probably won't display on a Mac)

Shortcut    akaMeaning
Ctrl+Shift+EscInvoke Task Manager or whatever replacement you might have installed, such as Process Explorer from SysInternals
Alt+TabCycle through tasks
Alt+Shift+TabCycle through tasks in reverse
Alt+EscSwitch to next app in Alt+Tab list
Alt+Shift+EscSwitch to previous app in Alt+Tab list
Alt+EnterEquivalent of right-clicking an item in Windows Explorer and choosing Properties
ÿ+DWinKey+dToggle show desktop
ÿ+EWinKey+eWindows Explorer
ÿ+FWinKey+fFind file
ÿ+Ctrl+FWinKey+Ctrl+fFind computer
ÿ+LWinKey+lLock workstation
ÿ+MWinKey+mMinimise all windows
ÿ+Shift+MWinKey+Shift+mRestore all windows
ÿ+RWinKey+rStart, Run...
ÿ+UWinKey+uWindows Ease of Access Centre
ÿ+XWinKey+xWindows Mobility Centre
ÿ+BreakWinKey+BreakWindows System properties
ÿ+F1WinKey+F1Windows help

There are a few other tidbits in an older post about shortcuts, such as drag & drop modifiers, dragging to the command prompt & Run dialog, and more besides.


Windows 7

WinKey = ÿ aka the Windows key (alas Unicode has no character for this image - instead it's in the WingDings font as character 255 so probably won't display on a Mac)

Shortcut    akaMeaning
Ctrl+Shift+EscInvoke Task Manager or whatever replacement you might have installed, such as Process Explorer from SysInternals
Alt+TabCycle through tasks
Alt+Shift+TabCycle through tasks in reverse
Alt+EscSwitch to next app in Alt+Tab list
Alt+Shift+EscSwitch to previous app in Alt+Tab list
ÿ+BWinKey+bGive focus to Task Bar’s notification area so arrow keys can move between notification icons, Enter can select them (like clicking them with the mouse), Shift+F10 can show context menu, Shift+Tab can move focus to notification area etc.
ÿ+DWinKey+dToggle show desktop
ÿ+EWinKey+eWindows Explorer
ÿ+FWinKey+fFind file
ÿ+Ctrl+FWinKey+Ctrl+fFind computer
ÿ+GWinKey+gCycle between the Windows Gadgets on the desktop
ÿ+LWinKey+lLock workstation
ÿ+MWinKey+mMinimise all windows
ÿ+Shift+MWinKey+Shift+mRestore all windows
ÿ+PWinKey+pInvoke the presentation menu to allow options of displaying on computer only, duplicating to external display, extending to external display or displaying on external display only
ÿ+RWinKey+rStart, Run...
ÿ+TWinKey+tGive focus to Task Bar so arrow keys can move between Task Bar items, Enter can select them (like clicking them with the mouse), Shift+F10 can show context menu, Tab can move focus to notification area etc.
ÿ+UWinKey+uWindows Ease of Access Centre
ÿ+XWinKey+xWindows Mobility Centre
ÿ+BreakWinKey+BreakWindows System properties
ÿ+F1WinKey+F1Windows help
ÿ+TabWinKey+TabGlitzier version of Alt+Tab
ÿ+Shift+TabWinKey+Shift+TabGlitzier version of Alt+Shift+Tab
ÿ++WinKey+PlusZoom in (via Magnifier)
ÿ+-WinKey+MinusZoom out (via Magnifier)
ÿ+EscWinKey+EscTurn off zoom, if active
Alt+↑Alt+Up ArrowIn Windows Explorer navigate one folder up in the folder hierarchy
Ctrl+Shift+NIn Windows Explorer this creates a new folder
Alt+EnterEquivalent of right-clicking an item in Windows Explorer and choosing Properties
Shift+right-click on an itemEnables extended Send To menu (has many more items in it). Also adds Copy as Path and Pin to Start Menu to the context menu.
Shift+right-click on a folderAdds in context menu command: Open command window here. This starts cmd.exe with the current directory being the folder in question.
Ctrl+Shift+EnterIn Start menu's search box launches as Administrator
Prt Sc Print Screen Copy a screenshot to the clipboard
Alt+Prt Sc Alt+Print Screen Copy a screenshot of just the focused window to the clipboard
Shift+Alt+Prt Sc left Shift+left Alt+Print Screen Toggle High Contrast mode
Ctrl+Alt+↑Ctrl+Alt+Up ArrowRotate screen to default orientation default
Ctrl+Alt+→Ctrl+Alt+Right ArrowRotate screen orientation 90 degrees from default
Ctrl+Alt+↓Ctrl+Alt+Down ArrowRotate screen orientation 180 degrees from default
Ctrl+Alt+←Ctrl+Alt+Left ArrowRotate screen orientation 270 degrees from default
ÿ+SpaceWinKey+SpaceEquivalent to desktop peek button to right of Task Bar’s notification area – makes all windows transparent so you can see the desktop until you release the keys. This is known as Aero Peek.
ÿ+↑WinKey+Up ArrowMaximise window. Same as dragging window’s title bar to top of screen.
ÿ+↓WinKey+Down ArrowRestore maximised window, or minimise restored window
ÿ+←WinKey+Left ArrowAlternately expand windows to fill left half of screen, expand to fill right half of screen or restore to previous size. Dragging window’s title bar to left edge of screen also expands window to fill left half of screen.
ÿ+→WinKey+Right ArrowAlternately expand windows to fill right half of screen, expand to fill left half of screen or restore to previous size. Dragging window’s title bar to right edge of screen also expands window to fill right half of screen.
ÿ+HomeWinKey+HomeMinimise all but the active window. You can get the same effect by clicking on a window’s title bar and shaking it about (known as Aero Shake)
ÿ+Shift+↑WinKey+Shift+Up ArrowMaximise window vertically (leave width unchanged). This is the same as double-clicking the window’s top or bottom resize border
ÿ+Shift+←WinKey+Shift+Left ArrowMove window to the monitor on the left
ÿ+Shift+→WinKey+Shift+Right ArrowMove window to the monitor on the right
ÿ+<digit>WinKey+<a number>Start app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed, or switch to it if already open
ÿ+Shift+<digit>WinKey+Shift+<a number>Start new instance of app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed. Shift-clicking the item does the same.
Shift+click a Task Bar buttonSame as ÿ+Shift+<digit>
Ctrl+Shift+click a Task Bar buttonOpen program as administrator
ÿ+Ctrl+<digit>WinKey+Ctrl+<a number>Cycle through open windows of app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed
ÿ+Alt+<digit>WinKey+Alt+<a number>Show the Jump List for the item on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed
Shift+right-click a Task Bar buttonShow XP-style Window menu
Ctrl+click a grouped Task Bar buttonCycle through the windows of the group

There are a few other tidbits in an older post about shortcuts, such as drag & drop modifiers, dragging to the command prompt & Run dialog, and more besides.


Windows 8

WinKey = ÿ aka the Windows key (alas Unicode has no character for this image - instead it's in the WingDings font as character 255 so probably won't display on a Mac)

Shortcut    akaMeaning
Ctrl+Shift+EscInvoke Task Manager or whatever replacement you might have installed, such as Process Explorer from SysInternals
Alt+TabCycle through "Metro" (Windows 8) and desktop apps
Alt+Shift+TabCycle through "Metro" (Windows 8) and desktop apps in reverse order
Alt+EscSwitch to next desktop app in Alt+Tab list
Alt+Shift+EscSwitch to previous desktop app in Alt+Tab list
ÿ+BWinKey+bGive focus to Task Bar’s notification area so arrow keys can move between notification icons, Enter can select them (like clicking them with the mouse), Shift+F10 can show context menu, Shift+Tab can move focus to notification area etc.
ÿ+CWinKey+cDispay the Charms bar. Equivalent to moving the mouse to the right edge of the screen or swiping in from the right edge of the screen.
ÿ+DWinKey+dToggle show desktop
ÿ+EWinKey+eWindows Explorer
ÿ+FWinKey+fOpen Search Charm and do a search on Files
ÿ+HWinKey+hOpen Share Charm
ÿ+IWinKey+iOpen Settings Charm
ÿ+JWinKey+jSwitch the main app and snapped app
ÿ+KWinKey+kOpen Devices Charm
ÿ+LWinKey+lLock workstation
ÿ+MWinKey+mMinimise all desktop app windows
ÿ+Shift+MWinKey+Shift+mRestore all desktop app windows
ÿ+OWinKey+oLock device orientation
ÿ+PWinKey+pInvoke the presentation menu to allow options of displaying on computer only, duplicating to external display, extending to external display or displaying on external display only
ÿ+QWinKey+qOpen Search Charm and do a search on Apps
ÿ+RWinKey+rRun a command
ÿ+TWinKey+tGive focus to Task Bar so arrow keys can move between Task Bar items, Enter can select them (like clicking them with the mouse), Shift+F10 can show context menu, Tab can move focus to notification area etc. Repeated presses of the keystroke cycles through the buttons on the Task Bar
ÿ+UWinKey+uWindows Ease of Access Centre
ÿ+VWinKey+vCycle through notifications
ÿ+Shift+VWinKey+Shift+vCycle through notifications in reverse order
ÿ+WWinKey+wOpen Search Charm and do a search on Settings
ÿ+XWinKey+xOpens Quick Link menu. Equivalent to right-clicking the Start tip you get when moving the mouse to the bottom left of the screen.
ÿ+ZWinKey+zShow app commands. Equivalent to right-clicking a general area of the application.
ÿ+BreakWinKey+BreakWindows System properties
ÿ+F1WinKey+F1Windows help
Prt Sc Print Screen Copy a screenshot to the clipboard
Alt+Prt Sc Alt+Print Screen Copy a screenshot of just the focused window to the clipboard
ÿ+PrtScWinKey+Print ScreenSave a PNG screenshot in the logged in user's My Pictures folder
ÿ+TabWinKey+TabCycle through "Metro" (Windows 8) apps
ÿ+Shift+TabWinKey+Shift+TabCycle through "Metro" (Windows 8) apps in reverse order
ÿ++WinKey+PlusZoom in (via Magnifier, which autostarts)
ÿ+-WinKey+MinusZoom out (via Magnifier)
ÿ+EscWinKey+EscapeCancel zoom, if enabled
ÿ+.WinKey+PeriodCycle through snapping an app to the right, to the left and unsnapping it
ÿ+Shift+.WinKey+Shift+PeriodCycle through snapping an app to the left, to the right and unsnapping it
Alt+↑Alt+Up ArrowIn Windows Explorer navigate one folder up in the folder hierarchy
Ctrl+Shift+NIn Windows Explorer this creates a new folder
Alt+EnterEquivalent of right-clicking an item in Windows Explorer and choosing Properties
Shift+right-click on an item in Windows ExplorerEnables extended Send To menu (has many more items in it). Also adds Copy as Path to the context menu.
Shift+right-click on a folderAdds in context menu command: Open command window here. This starts cmd.exe with the current directory being the folder in question.
Ctrl+Shift+EnterIn Start screen's Apps search results launches app as Administrator
Shift+Alt+Prt Sc left Shift+left Alt+Print Screen Toggle High Contrast mode
Ctrl+Alt+↑Ctrl+Alt+Up ArrowRotate screen to default orientation default
Ctrl+Alt+→Ctrl+Alt+Right ArrowRotate screen orientation 90 degrees from default
Ctrl+Alt+↓Ctrl+Alt+Down ArrowRotate screen orientation 180 degrees from default
Ctrl+Alt+←Ctrl+Alt+Left ArrowRotate screen orientation 270 degrees from default
ÿ+,WinKey+CommaMakes all windows transparent so you can see the desktop until you release the keys. Equivalent to (invisible) desktop peek button to right of Task Bar’s notification area. This was done by ÿ+Space in Windows 7
ÿ+↑WinKey+Up ArrowMaximise window. Same as dragging window’s title bar to top of screen.
ÿ+↓WinKey+Down ArrowRestore maximised window, or minimise restored window
ÿ+←WinKey+Left ArrowAlternately expand windows to fill left half of screen, expand to fill right half of screen or restore to previous size. Dragging window’s title bar to left edge of screen also expands window to fill left half of screen.
ÿ+→WinKey+Right ArrowAlternately expand windows to fill right half of screen, expand to fill left half of screen or restore to previous size. Dragging window’s title bar to right edge of screen also expands window to fill right half of screen.
ÿ+HomeWinKey+HomeMinimise all but the active window. You can get the same effect by clicking on a window’s title bar and shaking it about (known as Aero Shake)
ÿ+Shift+↑WinKey+Shift+Up ArrowMaximise window vertically (leave width unchanged). This is the same as double-clicking the window’s top or bottom resize border
ÿ+Shift+←WinKey+Shift+Left ArrowMove window to the monitor on the left
ÿ+Shift+→WinKey+Shift+Right ArrowMove window to the monitor on the right
ÿ+PgUpWinKey+Page UpMove Start screen and "Metro" (Windows 8) apps to the monitor on the left
ÿ+PgDnWinKey+Page DownMove Start screen and "Metro" (Windows 8) apps to the monitor on the right
ÿ+<digit>WinKey+<a number>Start app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed, or switch to it if already open
ÿ+Shift+<digit>WinKey+Shift+<a number>Start new instance of app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed. Shift-clicking the item does the same.
Shift+click a Task Bar buttonSame as ÿ+Shift+<digit>
ÿ+Ctrl+Shift+<digit>WinKey+Ctrl+Shift+<a number>Start new instance of app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed running as administrator. Ctrl+Shift-clicking the item does the same.
Ctrl+Shift+click a Task Bar buttonSame as ÿ+Ctrl+Shift+<digit>
ÿ+Ctrl+<digit>WinKey+Ctrl+<a number>Cycle through open windows of app pinned on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed
ÿ+Alt+<digit>WinKey+Alt+<a number>Show the Jump List for the item on the Task Bar at the position corresponding to the number pressed
Shift+right-click a Task Bar buttonShow XP-style Window menu
Ctrl+click a grouped Task Bar buttonCycle through the windows of the group
ÿ+SpaceWinKey+SpaceSwitch input language and keyboard layout
ÿ+Ctrl+SpaceWinKey+Ctrl+SpaceSwitch to previous input language and keyboard layout

There are a few other tidbits in an older post about shortcuts, such as drag & drop modifiers, dragging to the command prompt & Run dialog, and more besides.


OS X

NB: Some of the special Mac symbols may not render on a non-Mac if the necessary Unicode font is not installed.

↩ (character 8617, so &#8617; in HTML) = Enter
⇧ (character 8679, so &#8679; in HTML) = Shift
⌘ (character 8984, so &#8984; in HTML) = Command
⌥ (character 8997, so &#8997; in HTML) = Option or Alt
⎋ (character 9099, so &#9099; in HTML) = Escape
⏏ (character 9212, so &#9167; in HTML) = Eject

Shortcut      akaMeaning
On startup
Cboot from bootable CD/DVD
Optionshow all bootable volumes
Finder
⌘ECommand-Eeject
⌘↓Command-Down arrowOpen highlighted item
Miscellaneous
⌘⇧3Command-Shift-3save image of full screen to files on desktop
⌘⇧4Command-Shift-4save image of selected part of screen to desktop (press Space to select window under cursor)
⌥⌘⎋Option-Command-Escforce close from list
⌥⌘⇧⎋Option-Command-Shift-Esc (for 3 seconds)force close frontmost app
⌥⌘⏏Option-Command-EjectSend Mac to sleep
^F2Control-F2Give keyboard focus to menu bar
^F3Control-F3Give keyboard focus to Dock
⌥⌘+Option-Command-PlusZoom in (if enabled)
⌥⌘-Option-Command-MinusZoom out (if enabled)
⌥^⌘8Option-Control-Command-8Invert colours


GMail

Formal list of shortcuts
Printable list of shortcuts

Shortcut    Meaning
?show shortcut help
ccompose message
knewer conversation
jolder conversation
xselect conversation
#delete conversation
nnext message
pprevious message
o or Enteropen message
rreply
areply all
vmove message
Shift+imark as read
g, lgo to label